Introduction To The Field Of Robotics

Robots have haunted human minds since the birth of Mythology. The first was Talos, an animated bronze statue who guarded the island of Crete, from Greek Mythology. It was created by Hephaestus, the engineering God of the Forge, and the patron of technology and invention, for Minos, son of Zeus, and the legendary first king of Crete. In fact, some two thousand back, there is record of remarkable ideas of imitating and even surpassing natural life by means of “biotechne”, which means “life through craft”. One might even call this the beginning of the concept of Robotics and Biotechnology. So, what are you still waiting for? Want to learn more about robotics? This article, therefore, is an introduction to the field of robotics.

The Original Robot

Medieval craftsmen created self-moving machines, and this spurred men to start dreaming of full blown robots. The efforts to create the first Robot continued relentlessly since then, but it was mainly the development of materials and components that defeated all such efforts, until the middle of the Twentieth Century. In 1954, the inventor George Devol created the first digitally operated pre-programmed Robot in the world, which he called the Unimate. In 1956, he formed the first company to manufacture Robots, with partner Joseph Engelberger. In 1961, General Motors installed the first modern Robot Unimate in their automobile factory in New Jersey. Unimate was an automated, programmable robot that repeatedly performed the same, dangerous task of lifting extremely hot metal parts. Joseph Engelberger, partner of inventor George Devol, is now known as the “Father of Robotics” for his theoretical underpinning of Robotics as a true Science. Engelberger, in 1956, first met Devol at one of the cocktail parties, where Asimov’s Robot philosophies, patent-pending device by Science Fiction Writer Devol’s and Isaac’s, were discussed. Engelberger immediately recognized the tool as the first ever Robot, and visualized its application in performing dangerous jobs in engineering manufacture.

In 1957, it was Engelberger who convinced ‘Condec Corp’ CEO, Norman Schafler, to fund the development of Devol’s Robot. Again, it was Engelberger who convinced General Motors to invest in installing Unimate #001, in its major production floor at the Die Casting Plant in New Jersey, Trenton, to lift hot metal components. They together established ‘Unimation Inc’ in Connecticut, Danbury. It was the first kind of company in the world. By 1966, Unimation had expanded internationally. Licenses were granted to Finland’s Nokia and Kawasaki Robotics Kawasaki Japan’s Heavy Industries, for the manufacture and marketing of Unimate. The Robotics Industry had now penetrated both Asian and European Robotics market simultaneously. By 1984, Engelberger had established the Transitions Research Corp, later famous as ‘HelpMate’, which introduced Robotics to the field of medical care, especially to the geriatric population. Of his many books, ‘Robots in Practice’ is recognized as a landmark paper on the Theory of Robotics.

Robotics

Robotics now combines branches of Science and Engineering, along with other disciplines. This includes the Medical Sciences (particularly the Neuro Sciences), Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, Information Engineering, Computer Science, Data Science and many other peripheral subjects. Robots are considered to be machines that are designed to perform single or multiple tasks robotically with precision and speed. They are often intended to performing recurring tasks that are not facilitated by, or even impossible for, the human-based construction like we have. A Robot is controlled remotely from great distances, whether by man or by computer systems. Or a Robot can be made to be autonomous and independent in both decision making and execution of tasks. They can act as human assistants or on their own. Robots are widely used in all Industries for manufacturing, sorting, packaging, testing, recording and security functions. From medical applications, such as diagnosis of infectious diseases and execution of complex surgical operations and investigative medicine, Robots are everywhere. In medical research laboratories, microscopic Robotic carriers are being designed. Called ‘Microbots’, these tiny devices can be introduced into our bloodstream, and carry medicines, or perform micro-surgeries, inside human organs or fight external infections. Defense forces are using Robotics to create thinking lethal weapon systems that, once released, can plan and execute destructive action against enemies. Weaponry systems that use their own targeting, routing and evasive action after their initial “go ahead” from the controllers, and can be located anywhere on earth, even deep undersea or underground, are now taking over the duties of Defense Forces in all advanced countries, and cutting out risk to their men’s lives.

Terminator

Who knows where Robotics is going? Or where we are going? Certainly, the advance of Robotics in such a short time in the history of human civilization has been unbelievable. In conjunction with AI and the IoT (Internet of Things), Robotics has been taking over modern life steadily, almost surreptitiously. But for the moment, this Introduction to the Field of Robotics will have to suffice.

History & Evolution of Hard Drives

Hard Disk Drives are in use from a long time. All the computer systems or the laptops which you are using these days have hard drives present in them. Hard Drives are great devices for storage. When the world is turning out to use Solid State Disks (SSDs) for storage, there is nothing that can replace hard drives. They are still being one of those small devices that are being used for storing data in the large form. It would have been really difficult to store the data if hard drives would not have been there. But do you know the history of the hard drives? From the time the Hard Drives were developed, the new changes and evolution in it have been brought a lot of times. Here, we are going to share with you about the revolution of hard drives.

Invention First Hard Drive

The engineers of IBM at San Jose California Laboratory are the ones who invented the hard drive in the year 1953. They have developed a lot of things related to computers before they invented the hard drive. It was the first hard drive and was named Random Access Storage at that time. At present, we do call it secondary storage also, but back then the term given to it was ‘Random Access File’. The engineers very soon understood the application of the device and brought it in the world. In the computer’s hierarchy, a new name was added among the name of the other storage devices. But this storage device was a bit different than the other storage devices. As hard disk drives were very cheap or you can say less expensive at that time. But their capacity to store the data was high. This is also one of the reasons why engineers invented this device.

Hard Drives Evolution

As we have already mentioned above also, that technological changes were brought with a rapid state soon after the first hard disk drive was invented. The price of the hard drives was decreased, whereas the capacity or storage of the hard drives was increased. And it kept increasing from that time to date. There are a few surprising things about the hard drives which you might not be aware of. Like at present, the hard drives are very small in comparison with the hard drives of the older time. You should know that when the hard drives were invented, they took a complete room, as they were very big. But these days we have hard drives that can be stored in the pockets also. You can easily carry them in your bags and can travel from one place to another. So, this was also one of the big changes that have been brought in the hard drives after the invention.

Not just this but the changes in the storage size have also been brought in terms of measuring the data. Like earlier, people used to measure data in the form of megabytes. Megabytes was said to be a big or unimaginable amount of data to be stored in the hard drives. The hard drives have a storage memory of around 5MB or 10MB at that time. But at present, we do have hard drives that can store the data in Gigabytes (GB) and Terabytes (TB). And you must be knowing that Gigabytes is bigger than the Megabytes. As 1 Gigabyte has around 1024 megabytes. So, you can imagine the evolution in terms of the storage capacity yourself only.

Commercial Hard Drives

It was IBM only, who invented the first commercial hard drive. It was sold in the year 1956 by IBM. The first commercial hard disk drive was named as Random Access Method of Accounting and Control – RAMAC. RAMAC was quite big and it also required a complete room for operating it. It was around the size of the two refrigerators. Its weight was around a ton. The hard drive was a RAMAC 305 system as its storage system was known as IBM 350. The storage memory of RAMAC was made till 5 MB only which means 5 megabytes only. And the costing of one megabyte at that time was $10,000. So, you can imagine how costly the hard drives were at that time.

Then, in the year 1961, another disk storage unit was brought which was known as the IBM 1301 Disk Storage Unit. Some technological changes were brought in this disk storage unit. In the year 1963, IBM created the first removable hard disk drive. It was known as IBM 1311 and its storage memory was only 2.6 megabytes. In the year 1964, the first standardized hard disk drive was made by IBM. This hard disk drive was made to be used in a different version of the Computer System. It was known as IBM 2311.

Soon after these hard disk drives were released, more new hard drives came into existence with some changes in them. Like in the year 1970, a hard drive with error correction was made. Some other companies other than IBM also came into the hard drive business like Memorex, Western Digital, Seagate, and a few other companies. However, at present only 3 main manufacturers of Hard Disk Drives are there, they are Western Digital, Seagate, and Toshiba. These companies are selling and shipping hard drives of the storage capacity of around 4 TB and less than that.

In the year 1980, first-gigabyte storage capacity hard disk drive was introduced by IBM, known as 3380. It had a storage capacity of 2.5 GB and it weighed only around 500 pounds. Its cost was around $40,000. The change in the number of platters used in the hard drives kept changing with time to make it more advanced. From the time the Integra Peripherals were introduced, the hard drives became quite smaller in size, unlike the old ones which were huge to be fit in a complete room. New technologies like magneto Resistive, smaller disk platter, etc. came into use in the 1990s. The first terabyte capacity and the first 500 GB capacity hard drive was introduced by Hitachi in the year 2007 and 2005 simultaneously.

You all must be well aware of the size and the capacity of the hard drives which we have at present. So, you can see how hard drives have evolved since their invention. Something very huge at that time is now quite smaller. But the capacity of it has increased tremendously.

Top Online Computer Hardware Stores

Computers are made from a lot of components or parts, together with recognized as PC hardware. Some of the chief hardware PC units comprise CPU, mouse, hard disk, display screen monitor, CD drive, keyboard, etc. You can purchase a computer from a branded corporation or purchase an assembled model through an expert computer software person. Lots of times, when some parts of a computer get ruined, you can also get separate components from any online or nearby computer dealers.

If your computer is not working well or the hard disk defected, then you may want to replace the defective parts with a newer one. At times, due to funds constraints, you are not capable of buying pricey parts, and in that situation, cheap computer hardware can prove to be the most excellent solution to this difficulty.

Searching for new computer parts is actually good fun. Well, in any case, it used to be until PC hardware became more costly, and charges stopped dropping. Fortunately, there are a number of decent choices if you’re searching for cheaper hardware, both brand new and used.
In no precise order, here are listed a few good online stores for finding reasonable computer parts when repairing your device or searching to build a new one from scratch.

Microsoft

One of the most known brands when it comes to PC and devices, Microsoft has an online store aspect their whole range.

For Wholesale Computer Parts: AliExpress

If you exist for the excitement of a good deal hunt, Aliexpress has the worldwide electronics marketplace for you. There is an incredible amount of several electronics accessible in the AliExpress marketplace. Pro tip: For more costly items, search for Chinese name brands (i.e., ASUS, Lenovo, Acer, Huawei).

Best Buy

Best Buy is good to shop for the whole thing, from computers to electronics, cell phones, gaming, and a lot of.

For End-of-Season okay Sales: Newegg

Newegg is a title the same with great computer hardware offers. You can discover a range of new and renovated computer parts, such as the long-established Newegg deals. Deals differ day to day; thus, if you have some particular hardware in mind, it is value checking back at regular intervals. To help you out, you can put in those components to your list, and Newegg will notify you of an email if it goes on the deal.

Newegg has some other fine points, too. For example, their forums are very lively. Other customers will direct you toward the correct hardware for your computer assemble or otherwise. Also, the hardware manufacturer is recognized to browse and keenly respond to users with matters to make sure the whole thing is running smoothly. Whereas their YouTube channels build decent videos are comparing several bits of hardware you might want to choose up.

For Business: Newegg Business

Newegg Business offers great options and packages for businesses of different sizes. They serve small businesses with 1 to 500 employees as well as large businesses with over 500 employees. Newegg Business also serves education, government purchasing, and healthcare with special packages and unique offers. Newegg Business even surprisingly has offers for adult sites including dating apps, fuck book sites, and other hookup apps.

For big CPU concession: Micro Center

Micro Center is a particular option for this list. Why? Because it is the only choice with real bricks and mortar store you could pick up your hardware from. Also, if you’re suffering to make out what hardware you want, their in-house staffs are generally knowledgeable, and not just seeking for another sale. Oh, and they’ll generally match rate between the online and real-globe stores, too.

Here is some outstanding information on how to purchase cheap computer hardware:

Prepare a list of parts that requires to be changed

The first and the chief thing to do are ready a list of parts that needs to be changed. This will aid you in adapting to an organized approach, and you will be capable of finding outstanding computer hardware deals across the web or online. You can even seek tips on how to fix the most fundamental problems with the computer with online repair guides. This will even aid you to save some additional cash that you would have used up on the repair part.

Get cost quotes from the different online application

Another fine thing to do is to invite cost quotes from different online shops. You can compare these rates and at last, decide regarding the best online computer hardware shop. Always keep the contact details of such online stores handy with you thus that you can right away order your required computer goods at any time there is an urgent need.

Away from all of the above-stated points, there is one significant point that you should always bear in your mind, and that is always to ensure that all the significant data is backed up at a secure place. This will aid you in recovering your significant data and files in the situation of emergency conditions such as a hard disk crash or problems with flash drives.

What is a CPU? How Does it Work?

CPU or central processing unit of a computer is just like the brain of a human being. Just like all the functions in your body are connected with the brain. Similarly, CPU is said to be the central processing unit that controls most of the functions of a computer system. People also call CPU as a microprocessor of the computer system. CPU is one of those components of a computer system that is designed in order to calculate and process data. It helps in the execution of various programs, as it takes input from RAM. And after that, it decodes the input and processes it to provide the output.

CPU is there on different devices whether you use a computer system or you use a laptop or a tablet or smartphone, it plays an important role in all the devices. No matter how big or small your computer system is, they all have CPU’s or processors. However, a lot of changes have been brought in the CPU in the past few years. But its basic functions are the same and they work in the same manner. For every data or instruction that is passed in the CPU, has the proper speed for execution. The execution speed of a CPU is either measured in Gigahertz (GHz) or Megahertz (MHz). It is said that the execution speed of the data depends on the frequency of the clock. That means more the frequency of the clock, more will be the execution speed of the data.

How CPU Works?

If we talk about how CPU works, you should know that it has three main functions. The first one is fetching data, the second one is decoding the data, and the third one is executing or processing the data.

First of all, the CPU receives or fetches the instructions from the RAM. The instructions are there in the form of a number. There are many instructions which CPU receives for a single operation. CPU should know which one is the next instruction. These instructions are then stored in the Instruction Register or IR. Once this is done, the second step of decoding the instructions start. All the stored instructions are passed to a circuit which is also known as Instruction Decoder. These instructions are then converted into the signals. And after that, they are being passed to different parts of the CPU for execution or action. The final step is of the execution-only as we just mentioned. All the results and actions are stored in the CPU Register only. This helps in performing more actions when more instructions related to the same are received. The supercomputers which are said to be the fastest computers among all the computers, help in executing any instruction very fast. Its execution speed is less than 1/billionth of a second. A desktop that you use at home has an execution speed of less than 1/millionth of a second. This is plenty of speed and power to run video games, play videos, browse free fuckbook, adult sites, and any other programs you wish to use on your computer.

CPU and Multi Core CPU’s

If you are making use of the computer systems these days, you must be aware of the fact that the CPU these days are multi-core. This means that there is not just one processor in the CPU Chip, but there is more than one processor. Using multi core processors in the computer systems is very beneficial. As it helps in decreasing the consumption of energy, helps in increasing the performance of the computer system, and makes multi-tasking efficient. You will find Dual Core Processor, Quad Core Processor, Hexa Core Processor, and Octa Core Processor in the computer systems. They all are better than each other. Like the Quad Core Processor works better than Dual Core Processor and it supports multitasking more. Similarly, the Octa Core Processor works better than the Quad Processor, and it also supports multitasking more efficiently. This is because a Dual Core Processor only has 2 processors, and a Quad Core Processor has only 4 processors, and the same applies to others also.

Components of CPU

CPU has 2 components, known as CU that is Control Unit. And the other one is ALU that is the Arithmetic and Logical Unit. Both these components are an important part of the CPU and are used for performing different functions. Control Unit helps in the execution of the instructions as it tells the CPU what it needs to do. Whenever the user inputs any information, first it reaches the control unit of the CPU only. The Control Unit is also further categorized into two parts that are Hardwired Control Units and Micro Programmable Control Units. Talking about the ALU, so you can guess by its name only that what this component of CPU does. It performs all the arithmetic and logical operations that takes place in the CPU. The operations like addition, subtraction, etc are performed with the help of ALU only.